Women Literacy and Empowerment: A Review

Women Literacy and Empowerment

Education is most important for the overall development of a country. With regard to health and social awareness, education plays a vital role. In our Indian culture generally, women manage the house business, day-to-day economic affairs, and control the family budget.

In this sense, if they are educated they would be able to manage the home budget more efficiently which finally affects their economic growth and overall development. They can participate and contribute to the democratic process and various government schemes as well which would finally raise the graph of national development.

Hence we need to have more attention on women’s literacy programs and their education. Education can bring a lot of change and happiness in their life. Women’s literacy is the need of the hour for women empowerment actually. 

women literacy and empowerment

It is important to understand the present form of the nonformal education system in our country where a large number of adults especially women are unable to read and write. They do not find time to go to school because of various reasons and become disadvantaged by government or private education systems.

This is a fact that a large number of illiterate populations belong to the women’s sector that is un-privileged from basic education. The reason behind this may be many but practically these are because of the following;

Daily wage worker goes to work in the morning, come back home in the evening, and thereafter miss the education opportunity. Women have other family responsibilities to take care of their children and family members. In the early morning they wake up and start their homework first; cleaning, dishwashing, cooking for children and family members and then going somewhere else for their daily job either for farming or any job nearby. In the evening after coming back home again they have to go through the same exercise.

So there is a big challenge for them when they would attend school, even if they are interested in learning. Suppose, they find even two hrs leisure time and which could be utilized for learning purposes but the question arises that they cannot leave their job because they need food to survive in life and if they do not do their daily wage job and routine home works, the family will not accept them (women).

Women in our Indian society and culture have to take on family responsibilities; hence basic schooling is ignored. This is the biggest issue and reason for an increased number of women illiteracy in India. Not only is this, but women’s illiteracy also increases many problems in society for which further research is required.

Important areas we need to focus on seriously;


To overcome the situation where women need to be empowered it is most important that they should be literate first. Literacy is the first step that would make a woman powerful in terms of their prosperity and happy life. Without education, it is difficult for them to understand the family management system. Family management is such an important factor that affects women’s empowerment.

Family Management System

A family management system (FMS) is a kind of self-learning process in which a woman learn theoretically as well as practically to manage the entire home management.

In this step general management, financial management, health management, social management, political management, behavior science, etc, all are somehow as in the part of daily routine life a woman has to go through and learn the real issues, their solutions, and finally a refined knowledge is gained which makes a family happy.

A happy family is the aim of the Family Management system. If the family is happy, the whole purpose of women’s empowerment is served. For this again education is the key issue for women.       

Health Awareness

Health education for women empowerment is known as one of the important factors. An educated woman may have more awareness of different types of health issues and their remedies, precautions, vaccinations, etc.

Economic development is concerned with these issues. Generally, it has been seen that illiterate persons are not keeping themselves abreast of health issues and because of this reason suddenly they face health problems and spend a huge amount of saved money on the treatment of different diseases.

In many cases, they borrow loans from local businessmen and sell their properties arrange from some other sources. It is a very painful exercise in urgent medical situations and for this, a heavy cost is put on the family head. Finally, the economic condition of the family is affected. An educated man or woman may avoid this unwanted financial burden.

Social Awareness

Illiteracy enhances social problems, social bye cuts, and differences among people in society. A small issue even takes a vast and serious form of the social problem which finally defaces the value in society and disturbs the whole chain of social life, culture, and economic growth; hence social awareness is one of the important issues for women empowerment in India. But lack of education again is not possible.

Though there are Government Schemes for Adult Education Programs I feel the way of its implementation and method of teaching may not be proper therefore the desired rate of literacy is achieved in India. India needs a different type of literacy program model which could be technology-based now.

Lessons and methods of teaching should be technology-based and more graphics-enabled systems. The timing for learning classless for adults should be flexible according to their convenience because they are daily wage workers. The new literacy training model /program must consider the following issues/points while designing the model;

  1. Management issues
  2. Cost of expenditures
  3. Monitoring problem
  4. Ownership issues
  5. Social issues for women learners
  6. Learners’ issues- do not come to school during day time or evening because they go for a job anywhere or in the evening work for their house responsibilities.
  7. Maintenance issue.
  8. Security issues
  9. Safety issues.
  10. Easy to learn
  11. Easy to operate
  12. Easy to manage
  13. Flexible timing
  14. Job opportunities
  15. Free from bureaucracy
  16. Easy to run by anyone
  17. Free from complications like bank accounts, funds, lease, rent, etc.
  18. Easy lesson
  19. Easy model discovered by us
  20. Open for all groups of males and females.

India is a fast developing country where women’s participation cannot be ignored, therefore it is also paramount important that they must be educated. Without education, they are not able to participate in the democratic process and various government schemes. The Government should take appropriate and necessary steps to educate all women in the country; it would be the biggest contribution to society and nation-building.

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Dr. M.K. Vajpayee

Vice-Chancellor, Capital University
Former Pro-Vice-Chancellor of Ansal University
Has around 26 years of experience in the education system, academic planning & development, etc.

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