Cbse: CBSE Class 12th Political Science Syllabus 2023-24: Download PDF

Cbse: CBSE Class 12th Political Science Syllabus 2023-24: Download PDF


Topics to be focused:

a) Challenges for the new Nation.

Three Challenges.

b) Partition: Displacement and Rehabilitation.

Consequences of Partition.

c) Integration of Princely States.

The problem

Government’s approach



d) Reorganisation of States.

  • Analyse the challenges which Independent India faced.
  • Describe the factors that led to the partition of India.
  • Explain the circumstances under which different princely states signed the Instrument of Accession.
  • Assess how language became the basis of re-organisation of the states.
  • Evaluate the role played by leaders in Nation Building.
2- Era of One-Party Dominance

Topics to be focussed:

a) Challenge of building democracy.

b) Congress dominance in the first three general elections.

Nature of Congress dominance

Congress as a social and ideological coalition.

Tolerance and management of Factions

c) Emergence of opposition parties

  • Appreciate the sustenance of democratic politics in the country.
  • Evaluate the electoral politics post-Independence
  • Assess the dominance of the Indian National Congress from 1952 to 1967.
  • Evaluate the role of Opposition parties
3- Politics of Planned Development

Topics to be focussed:

a) Political contestation.

Ideas of Development.


Planning Commission

b) The Early Initiatives

The First Five Year Plan.

Rapid Industrialisation

  • Identify the varied options considered by the government to balance growth and socio-economic justice.
  • Know the difference between Left and Right Ideology
  • Understand the need for the formation of the Planning Commission.
  • Appreciate the need for strategic long-term development programme and policies
4- India’s External Relations

Topics to be focussed:

a) International Context

b) The Policy of Non- Alignment.

Nehru’s role

Distance from two camps.

Afro Asian Unity

c) Peace and conflict with China

The Chinese Invasion 1962

War and Peace with Pakistan

Bangladesh War 1971

d) India’s Nuclear Policy.

  • Recognise the significance of NAM
  • Interpret, compare and contrast multi-lateral aspects of Indo-China relationship
  • Demonstrate knowledge on Indo-Pak wars
  • Appreciate the steps taken by Indian government to develop military capacity
  • Reflect and introspect on the choices that the country must consider for the cause of development and peace building
5- Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System

Topics to be focused:

a) Challenge of Political Succession

From Nehru to Shastri

From Shastri to Indira Gandhi

b) Fourth General Election 1967

Context of the Election.

Non Congressism

Electoral Verdict



c) Split in the Congress

Indira vs the Syndicate

Presidential Election 1969

d) The 1971 Election and Restoration of Congress

The outcome and after Restoration?

  • Understand the challenges of political succession after Nehru.
  • Evaluate the opposition unity and the Congress split as a challenge to Congress dominance.
  • Compare and contrast the new Congress and the old Congress.
  • Summarise the initiatives taken by Indira Gandhi to overcome the challenges faced by her
  • Analyse the process of restoration of the Congress system
6- The Crisis of Democratic Order

Topics to be focused:

a) Background to Emergency.

Economic Context.

Gujarat and Bihar Movements

Conflict with Judiciary

b) Declaration of Emergency

Crisis and response Consequences

c) Lessons of the Emergency.

d)Politics after Emergency.

Lok Sabha Elections 1977

Janata Government


  • Understand the causes and consequences of Emergency
  • Examine the lessons of Emergency
  • Evaluate the rule of Janata Government
7- Regional Aspirations

Topics to be focused:

a) Region and the Nation Indian Approach

Areas of Tension

Jammu and Kashmir

Roots of the Problem

External and Internal disputes

Politics since 1948

Insurgency and After 2022 and Beyond

b) Punjab

Political Context

Cycle of Violence

Road to Peace

c) The Northeast

Demand for autonomy

Secessionist Movements

Movements against outsiders

Assam and National Integration

  • Discuss the implications of regional demands.
  • Analyse the importance of integrity in India.
  • Appreciate the initiatives taken by the government in dealing with regional aspirations
8- Recent Developments in Indian Politics

Topics to be focused

a) Context of 1990s

b) Era of Coalition Alliance Politics

c) Political rise if the Backward Classes Mandal Implemented Political Fallouts

d) Communalism, Secularism and Democracy.

Ayodhya Dispute Demolition and after

e) Emergence of New Consensus

f) Lok Sabha Elections 2004

g) Growing Consensus

  • Understand momentous changes taking place in the nation since 1989
  • Trace the rise and growth of BJP.
  • Identify the areas of growing consensus