NCERT Prescribed Textbook
1. Fundamentals of Human Geography
2. India- People and Economy
3. Practical work in Geography- Part II
CBSE Class 12th Geography Course Structure 2023-24
Book 1: Fundamental of Human Geography
Book 2: India- People and Economy
Book 3: Geography Part II
CBSE Class 12th Detailed Geography Syllabus 2023-24
Book- Fundamental of Human Geography
Chapter 1- Human Geography
- Define the term human geography
- Elucidate the Interdependence between Nature and Human beings.
- State the fields and subfields of Human Geography and its relation with other branches of Social Sciences.
- Differentiate between Environmental Determinism and Possibilism.
- Explain Neo-determinism with examples from real life.
Chapter 2- The World Population-distribution, density and growth
- Calculate density of population, birth rate and death rate.
- Name and define the components responsible for population change.
- Understand the stages of population growth in the world using Demographic Transition Theory.
- Suggest measures to control population growth.
- Define the following terms: Growth of population, Natural growth of population, Positive growth of population, Negative growth of population.
Chapter 3- Human development
- Differentiate between growth and development
- Explain the three basic indicators of human development and measure the level of Human Development.
- Describe Human Development Index published by UNDP.
- Compare HDI with the Human Poverty Index.
- Explain the key pillars of human development with examples.
- Compare Income approach, Welfare approach, Basic Needs approach and capability approach to understand the concept Human Development.
- To categories countries on the basis of their HDI and explain their characteristics.
Chapter 4- Primary Activities
- Define the following terms: Economic activities, Primary activities, Red Collar Worker, Pastoral Nomadism.
- Explain food gathering as an economic activity.
- Distinguish between pastoral nomadism and commercial livestock rearing.
- Differentiate between primitive subsistence and intensive subsistence farming.
- Describe the characteristic features of plantation agriculture as a type of commercial farming.
- Analyse why there is low yield per acre but high yield per person in areas of extensive grain cultivation.
- Compare and contrast the farming practices in the developed urban areas of the world.
- Analyse how the model of Kolkhoz introduced in the erstwhile USSR boosted agricultural production.
- Examine the reasons for the success of cooperative farming in European countries.
- Differentiate between open cast mining and shaft mining.
- Discuss how mining can have an impact on humans and the environment.
Chapter 5- Secondary Activities
- Explain key concepts such as, large-scale manufacturing, high technology industry, organizational set up, foot-loose industries, Agri business etc.
- Identify and explain the factors affecting the location of an industry.
- Differentiate between different types of industries on the basis of size, raw material, ownership and output.
- Differentiate between cottage industry and small scale industry.
- Explain the importance of high tech industries and reason for them being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan cities.
- Compare large scale industry and modern high tech industry with examples
- Understands and analyses the interrelationship between.
Chapter 6- Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
- Compare and contrast traditional and modern economic activities.
- Students correlate tertiary activities and their role in the economic development of a country.
- Describe different types of tertiary activities.
- Discuss different types of trading centres found in rural and urban areas and the role played by them in the local economy.
- Describe quinary activities and its role in advanced economies.
- Discuss how tertiary, quaternary and quinary activities have replaced jobs in primary and secondary sectors.
- Define the following terms: BPO, Outsourcing, KPO, Departmental Store, Chain Store, Wholesale trading.
Chapter 7- Transport and Communication
- Compare and contrast various modes of transport.
- Explain the relationship of transport and communication networks to economic development of a region.
- Describe the major highways and major rail networks of different continents.
- Discuss the location and economic significance of Trans Siberian Railway, Trans Canadian Railway, The Union and Pacific Railway and Trans Australian Railway.
- Describe the location and the economic importance of the major sea routes of the world.
- Discuss how the Suez Canal and Panama Canal serve as major gateways of commerce for both the eastern and the western world.
- Discuss how the modern communication systems have made the concept of global village a reality.
Chapter 8- International Trade
- Define international trade and describe how it impacts various countries.
- Describe the basis of International Trade.
- Discuss types of and aspects of International trade.
- Explain the term Dumping, Trade liberalisation and Globalisation.
- Discuss the impact of WTO on current global trade.
- Evaluate how international trade can be detrimental to some nations.
- Analyse how sea ports act as chief gateways of International trade.
Book- India- People and Economy
Chapter 1- Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition
- Differentiate between distribution of population and density of population.
- Define: Physiological Density, Agricultural Density, Population doubling time, Working Population, Participation Rate, Main Worker, Marginal Worker, Rural Population, Urban Population, Adolescent Population.
- Discuss the factors responsible for uneven distribution of population in India.
- Explain trends of population growth in India since 1901.
- Describe rural-urban population composition, religious composition linguistic composition and sectoral composition of workforce in India.
- Discuss the occupational structure of India’s population.
Chapter 2- Human Settlements
- Differentiate between rural and urban settlement.
- Describe the factors that govern the types of rural settlement in India.
- Compare and contrast clustered, semi clustered, Hamleted and dispersed settlement with examples.
- Describe the evolution of towns in India since prehistoric times.
- Classify towns on the basis of their functions.
Chapter 3- Land Resources and Agriculture
- Name and define the land use categories.
- Compare the Changes in shares of Land-use Categories in India between 1950 and 2014.
- Discuss the importance of common property resources for the community.
- Compare dryland and Wetland farming and evaluate its importance.
- Compare the geographical conditions required for the growth of the following crops and their distribution/growing areas.
- Rice, Wheat, Jowar, Pulses, Oilseeds, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Tea, Coffee
- Evaluate technological developments that have taken place in Indian agriculture since Independence.
- Discuss the challenges faced by the Indian farmers and suggest measures to overcome them.
Chapter 4- Water Resources
- Describes the available water resources in India.
- Evaluates the water demand and supply in India.
- Discuss the reasons for water scarcity in the country.
- Discuss water resources in India, its geographical distribution, sectoral utilization, and methods of its conservation and management.
- Recognize various emerging water problems and analyse the causes for deterioration of quality of water.
- Evaluate the scope to use rainwater harvesting techniques to conserve precious water resources.
Chapter 5- Mineral and energy resources
- Classify minerals on the basis of chemical and physical properties.
- Describe the major mineral belts of India and mark them on an outline map of India.
- Describe different types of nonconventional mineral resources.
- Analyse why renewable energy resources will be the future source of resources.
- Suggest measures to conserve our non-renewable resources.
- On an outline political Map of India mark and label the following:
a. Iron-ore mines: Mayurbhanj, Bailadila, Ratnagiri, Bellary
b. Manganese mines: Balaghat, Shimoga
c. Copper mines: Hazaribagh, Singhbhum, Khetari
d. Bauxite mines: Katni, Bilaspur and Koraput
e. Coal mines: Jharia, Bokaro, Raniganj, Neyveli
f. Oil Refineries: Mathura, Jamnager, Barauni
Chapter 6- Planning and sustainable development in Indian Context
- Develop an understanding about various types of planning.
- Justify the need for target areas and target groups planning by the Planning Commission with examples.
- Explains the aims and approaches of the Hill Area Development Programme, Drought prone area Programme.
- Critically evaluate the aims and social benefits of ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region.
- Evaluate the measures that can be taken to promote sustainable development in the Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area.
Chapter 7- Transport and communication
- Develops an understanding about various means of transport being used in different parts of India.
- Analyse the impact of the physical environment on development of various modes in different regions.
- Describe different types of highways found in different parts of our country.
- Discuss the role of Indian Railways in the growth of India’s economy with focus on recent technological advancements.
- Describe the five National Waterways of our country.
- Discuss the role of OIL and Gail in development of gas pipelines in India.
- Discuss reasons for the state wise variation in road density in India.
- Elucidate the impact of modern communication networks in our life.
- Mark and label the following on an outline political map of India: Terminal stations of north south corridor, East west corridor & golden quadrilateral.
Chapter 8- International Trade
- Give reasons for changing the pattern of the composition of India’s import and export.
- Discuss the strategies adopted by India to double its share in international trade.
- Evaluate the role of sea ports as gateways of international trade with examples.
- Mark and label the major sea ports and airports on an outline map of India.
- Major Sea Ports: Kandla, Mumbai, Marmagao, Kochi, Mangalore, Tuticorin, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Paradwip, Haldia.
- International Air ports: Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Chennai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Delhi, Amritsar, Thiruvananthapuram & Hyderabad.
Chapter 9- Geographical Perspective on selected issues
- Classify types of pollution based on the medium through which pollutants are transported and diffused.
- Explain various sources of pollution and summarise the state of water, air, land and noise pollution in India.
- Analyse the rural-urban migration and its role in pollution.
- Describe the health and social problems of slum dwellers with reference to Dharavi.
- Describe the natural and human causes of land degradation and suggest measures to control land degradation in India.
- Suggest measures to control different types of pollution and evaluate the effectiveness of the Swachh Bharat Mission.
- Discuss the problems related to urban waste disposal and suggest measures to convert waste into wealth.
Book 3: Geography Part II
Chapter 1- Data its source and compilation
- Define data.
- Differentiate between primary and secondary sources of data.
- List several sources of data.
Chapter 2- Data Processing
- Calculate the mean rainfall of your city.
- List ten Himalayan peaks with their heights.
- Calculate the median height using the data.
Chapter 3- Representation of Data
- Construct a line graph to represent the growth rate of Population in India 1901-2011.
- Construct a polygraph to compare the growth of sex ratio in different states.
- Construct a line and bar graph to represent the average monthly rainfall and temperature of Delhi.
- Construct a multiple bar diagram to represent decadal literacy rate, male literacy and female literacy.
- Draw a pie diagram to show India’s export to major regions of the world 2010-2011.
- Construct a dot map to show India’s Population 2011.
- Construct a choropleth map to show state wise variation in population density.
Chapter 4- Spatial Information Technology
- Explain what is Spatial.
- Information Technology or GIS.
- Describe the advantages of GIS over manual methods.
- Components of GIS.
- Spatial Data formats:
- Raster data format
- Vector data format.
- Spatial Analysis: Overlay and Buffer Analysis.
Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ’s)
- How can I prepare for CBSE Class 12th Geography Syllabus 2023-24?
Here are some tips to help you prepare for CBSE Class 12th Geography Syllabus 2023: Understand the syllabus thoroughly and create a study plan, Use reference books and study materials to supplement your learning, Practice previous year question papers and sample papers, Prepare notes for important topics, Focus on understanding the concepts and not just memorizing them, Use maps and diagrams to understand the subject better, Attend classes regularly and clarify doubts with your teachers, Stay updated with the latest news and developments related to the subject and Stay calm and focused during the exam and manage your time effectively.
- What is the format of the CBSE Class 12th Geography exam?
The CBSE Class 12th Geography exam will be in the following format: Section A: Objective Type Questions – 20 marks, Section B: Short Answer Questions – 30 marks and Section C: Long Answer and Map Work – 20+20 marks.
- What is CBSE Class 12th Geography Syllabus 2023-24?
CBSE Class 12th Geography Syllabus 2023 is the course outline for the Geography subject for the academic year 2023-2024 for class 12th students studying under the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) in India.
- What is the exam pattern for CBSE Class 12th Geography 2023-24?
The CBSE Class 12th Geography exam pattern for 2023 includes a written exam for 70 marks and practical work for 30 marks. The written exam will consist of 3 hours and will have two parts: Part A and Part B. Part A will have 35 marks and will include multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, and case studies. Part B will have 35 marks and will include long-answer questions.
- What are some good reference books for CBSE Class 12th Geography 2023-24?
Some good reference books for CBSE Class 12th Geography exam are: Fundamentals of Physical Geography by NCERT, India: Physical Environment by NCERT, Human Geography by Majid Husain, Economic and Commercial, Geography of India by Sharma and Cottingham, Geography of Population by R.C. Chandna, Certificate Physical and Human Geography by Goh Cheng Leong, Indian Economic Geography by C.B. Memoria and World Regional Geography by Lydia M.
- What are the main topics covered in CBSE Class 12th Geography syllabus for 2023-24?
The CBSE Class 12th Geography syllabus for 2023 covers a wide range of topics, including physical geography, human geography, and map work. Some of the main topics include: Fundamentals of Physical Geography, India: Location, Climate, and Natural Vegetation, Landforms and their Evolution Climate, Water in the Atmosphere, World Climate and Climate Change, Biodiversity and Conservation, Human Geography, Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition, Migration: Types, Causes, and Consequences, Human Development, Primary Activities, Secondary Activities, Tertiary and Quaternary Activities, Transport and Communication, International Trade and Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems.