Higher Education: A journey from 1.0 to 4.0

Higher Education: A journey from 1.0 to 4.0 (PART 2)

A lot has changed throughout this journey from Higher Education 1.0 to Higher Education 4.0. As correctly stated “only change is constant”, things have changed and so have the problems and the solution that our future requires.

Global Higher Education

Global Higher Education: Changing Dimensions & Deformities

The global higher education scenario is very complex and full of contradictions. Unless we understand the scenario it becomes very difficult to design a specific roadmap for concerned countries. The projections of future enrolments in tertiary sector explicitly prove that the higher education sector is ready for a quantum jump in terms of the student population and international studentship.

G-1: Global Higher Education Market (2015-2019)

G-1 shows that over recent years the Global Higher Education Market (GHEM) is growing CAGR (Compounded Annual Growth Rate) of 9%.

In 2015 The Global Higher Education Market was of $2.9 trillion

  • 66% mainstream market of higher education & corporate training,
  • 15% market for Continuous education
  • 19% of other programs of higher education.

In the year 2019, the overall market of global higher education will reach up to $4.1 trillion

64% share of the mainstream market of higher education and corporate training (going down by 2% than 2015)

Increase of 2% in the other allied programs from 19% in 2015 to 21% in 2019

The global higher education market is huge at present and expecting exponential growth in the coming two decades, therefore competition is cut-throat one.

MUST READ -Higher Education 4.0: Smart Pathways For Smart Future (Part 1)

G-2: Future of Global Population and Higher Education Enrollment (2015-2030)

G-2 states us the projections of the global population 7.38 billion (2015) to 8.55 billion (2030). As the population is increasing the enrolment is also going to grow remarkably.

In 2015 the higher education enrolment was 212.6 million and that is expected332.2 million by 2030 and the change is 56%, which will be remarkably high.

As we are moving towards the internationalization of higher education the international student enrollment is also predicted to increase by 51% from 4538000 (4.5 million in 2015) to 6869000 (6.8 million in 2030).

Though the number of students in tertiary education is predicted to grow above 50% in next 15 years till 2030 and the higher education market is all sure to grow exponentially in coming decades, there are many deformities in the sector of higher education.

We can list them as follows:  

  1. International students’ mobility mostly will be concentrated in developed countries.
  2. The quality and ranking competition will reach to peak and the established & high ranked
  3. ‘Higher education Brands (HEBs)’ shall garner the market by spreading their wings across the world by developing technologies.
  4. The upcoming and upgrading universities in the world from Asia and other parts strive there hand to create a space in the global ranking to attract international students.
  5. In decades to come, the top 200 universities in the world will grow faster than other lagging behind’ universities & remaining most will face financial crunch, the crisis of inducting ‘world-class teacher’, competition & challenges to retain existing and gaining domestic & international students.
  6. The quality of higher education depends on the contribution of universities in terms of Research & Development (R & D), innovations. The universities which leapfrog only can sustain.
Knowledge-driven Pathways of Progress

IR 4.0 to Higher Education 4.0: Knowledge-driven Pathways of Progress

We have entered into the ‘smart digital century’ as described by Frederic Martel.

In the words Google’s former CEO Eric Schmidt it’s ‘Digital Age’. IR 4.0 is its name now in terms of its impact on the industries.

IR 4.0 (Industrial Revolution 4.0) has become a popular buzzword in the sector of manufacturing and industry in recent years. IR 4.0 is the transformational change driven by digital technologies encompassing.

Internet of things (IOTs), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), Intelligent Robotics,3D Printing…

Big Data Analytics and Cloud Computing many such disruptive innovations impacting and changing very structure & process of the industry. IR 4.0 is digitally driven & technologically lead revolution taking place in the industrial and manufacturing sector.

MUST READ -Higher Education 4.0: Smart Pathways For Smart Future (Part 1)

IR 1.0: Industrial Revolution 1.0, came into existence when in 1784 first mechanical weaving loom came in to use. It is the time when mechanical production facilities were invented and deployed based on water & steam power.

IR 2.0: Industrial Revolution 2.0, emerged when the first assembly line was developed in the year 1870. IR 2.0 is known for mass production facilities with the power of electrical energy. This can be called the age of mass production supported by electrical power generation.

IR 3.0: Industrial Revolution 3.0, come into consideration with the emergence of electronics and Information Technology, where computer applications were deployed in the industrial sector. In this aspect, the beginning started when Programmable Logic Control (PLC) system come into existence in the year 1969.

IR 4.0: Industrial Revolution 4.0, come into existence, when on the basis of Cyber-Physical Production System (CPPS) being utilized for industrial production, by unification of physical and virtual world, as an revolutionary impact of higher digitization, many authors such as Shwab K. , Frederic Martel, Fisk P., Soffel J. have discussed these revolutionary changes that have occurred in the present century in industry and other sectors , compelled to reshape re-engineer the structure and process of the present ever-changing industry and market.

Higher Education 4.0: What it is?

Now let’s discuss, what exactly is the education or higher education 4.0. We are going to live in the ‘smart’ time.

What exactly is that

What exactly is that?

Martel Frederic has described it in these words: “The term ‘Smart’ is simply becoming a synonym of the word internet and can be used for the world’s digital sector by including smartphones, applications, technology and the digital in general.”

He further remarks that “smart indicates a fundamental mutation of the web, the one which is coming: the passage from information to communication and now, to the internet of knowledge”.

Higher Education 4.0: H.E. Architecture

In the lights, if these revolutionary developments in regards to knowledge creation, knowledge dissemination, knowledge retribution, knowledge application. We have to understand Higher

Education 4.0. Let’s understand the four stages of education:

  1. Higher Education 1.0 

Education 1.0 is the manner and method of imparting instructions during the ancient and middle ages. The process of teaching that time was personalized and in close contact with the teacher. The ancient education process was limited to a few students from the elite class.

What is being called in India as the ‘Guru-Shishya Parampara’ (Teacher-Student radiation)? It was an informal education. It was not a structured syllabus. ‘Guru’ or teacher use to share his knowledge with students of his choice depending on his will and wish. This informal education system was existing in India, China, Israel, Rome & Greece also even in tribal societies.

Though there was no formal system of the curriculum during this time education 1.0 gradually changed itself from basic of informal education to the beginning of higher education, resulted in the founding of few universities such as Nalanda, Takshashila, Ujjain, Viramshila in India and Heian-Kyo in Japan during the 9th century. During this time religious & spiritual education was prominent. 2.

2. Higher Education 2.0

The education or higher education 2.0 emerged, when during the mid-15th century, the invention of the printing press changed the dynamics of knowledge reproduction & sharing system if knowledge. During this time, the books became the verticals if knowledge dissemination. During higher education 2.0 the process of knowledge transmission changed and concept of one to one (0 to 0) become one too many (0 to M).

In this period only specific revolution, renaissance, reforms occurred and universities were established as the center of higher learning. In the 14th and 18th century in Europe and many other countries universities were established and the opened doors of higher education for common people. It was a journey of elite education to mass education, women’s education. The informal education becomes formal and disciplines were born.

3. Higher Education 3.0

The Higher Education 3.0 means the present day education in the age of internet & information technology and it can be called as the period of democratization of higher education which increased the accessibility of higher education to otherwise deprived classes in mass scale. T

his is the phase of the 20th century, which replaced chalkboard to ICT boring education. It’s the beginning of digital age, consisting of technology, computer use, improved administration, and better learning & research & development in all disciplines dominated by Science and technologies.

It includes social changes such as an advent of the postal system, radio technology, television lectures, and internet revolution.

MUST READ -Higher Education 4.0: Smart Pathways For Smart Future (Part 1)

4. Higher Education 4.0: Future is here  

On the ground & backbone of higher education 3.0, the new age of higher education 4.0 has emerged. The higher education 4.0 puts the learner at the center & it enables the student to choose his/her mode of higher education by structuring an individual path to achieve individual goals. It’s collaborative & personalized learning. Now on can learn at the campus, at home and even at workplace.  

Universities towards Education

Preparedness of Universities towards Education 4.0

Source: (Leapfrogging to Education 4.0: Student at the core, report of the Ernest and Young prepared for FICCI, November 2017, p.54)

This is altogether different learning environment than the traditional centers for learning such as college and universities campuses. The higher education 4.0 is beyond boundaries, beyond higher education institutions and transnational in real sense. This method of learning is transforming conventional students into an active learner. The learner of 4.0 has full freedom to choose courses, knowledge, and skills. The teachers have to play a role of guiding force, instead of educator imparting knowledge. The Higher Education 4.0 shall eradicate the distance between cultures and societies, thus a student can learn from multiple universities persuading choice based courses & acquiring degrees of their choice. The H.E. 4.0 will be outcome-based education.

 Let me end this with the quote of noted contemporary thinker Harari Yual Noah from his latest book “21 Lessons for the 21st Century”:

“A global world puts unprecedented pressure on our personal conduct and morality. Each of us is ensnared within numerous all-encompassing spider webs, which on the one hand restrict our movements, but at the same time transmit our tiniest jiggle to faraway destinations. Our daily routines influence the lives of people and animals halfway across the world.”  

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