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New UGC Guidelines: Fund Cutting for Women’s Study Centers

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UGC Guidelines

The major objective of setting up a Centre of Women Studies in higher educational institutes is to establish an inclusive society that possesses equal place for male and female members.

We educate women because it is smart. We educate women because it changes the world. – Drew Fuast

Did you know that over the past several decades, one of the most significant transformations in education in India is the massive increase in women’s access to colleges and universities? The malice of gender discrimination of Higher Education in India has lowered comparatively because of the formulation and implementation of stringent and powerful laws and policies.

Undoubtedly, times have changed and the encouragement by government and society has given many Indian women with the feasibility of economic independence, respectable employment and they have become an important earning member of their families. Today, an educated woman holds the skills, the self-confidence and the power to be a better citizen. They are no less than men in any aspect and fields and are manifesting themselves amongst different opportunities provided through higher education.

Center For Women Studies

Recently, special guidelines are set up by The University Grants Commission (UGC) for the Centre of Women Studies at Universities and Colleges. The aim of this profound step is to focus on most marginalized and disadvantaged women in the society. These include women from Schedule Caste and Tribes, women living in unsafe environments, women with disabilities, among others. Scheduled Casts students constitute 13.9% and Scheduled Tribes students 4.9% of the total enrolment. 33.75% of students belong to Other Backward Classes. 4.7% of students belong to the Muslim Minority and 1.97% from other Minority Community. Although, the existence of such centers is no new thing in India. The graph of these centers has only increased from the past few years.

READ MORE – UGC Issues Guidelines For Setting Up Of Center For Women Studies

The major objective of setting up a Centre of Women Studies in higher educational institutes is to establish an inclusive society that possesses equal place for male and female members

According to some statistics released in 2011, the literacy rate of females in India is 65.46 percent, which is significantly lower than the world’s average of 79.7 percent. The female literacy rate in China is 82.7 percent. According to a report by the AISHE (All India Survey on Higher Education) (2015-2016), there are 14 Universities exclusively for women with 4 in Rajasthan, 2 in Tamil Nadu, 1 each in Delhi, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Uttrakhand Maharashtra, and West Bengal. There are 268 Affiliating Universities as well. According to these guidelines, the Centre for Women Studies at any institute will devote special attention and focus on the marginalized and deprived women in the society.

Objectives of UGC

Objectives of UGC for setting up the Center for Women Studies

  • Building knowledge and developing skills from both national as well as international perspectives
  • In order to cater to the diverse needs of Indian women, the Centre will also work extensively to develop course curriculum accordingly.
  • Solving mainstream gender issues in research and teaching
  • Constructing an inductive environment enabling women to take up leadership positions in a diversified array of sectors.
  • Working towards Master’s Programme in women’s higher education
  • Conducting evidence-based research on the economic development of women
  • Measures for economic inclusion of women in development sectors to be proposed and promoted
  • Concurrence in the prescribed format to comply with the new guidelines to be given by the existing centers

According to an official at UGC, “A women study center must seek a comprehensive, critical and balanced understanding of India’s socio-economic realities and governance. Its chief components comprise of women’s contribution to society and social processes and their perception of their own lives, the broader social reality and their struggles, and aspirations.”

Previous Guidelines vs New Guidelines

Previous Guidelines vs New Guidelines

The guidelines speak that these centers will be monitored and evaluated periodically by the UGC. The head of the center will present a report to its advisory committee on how the center is working and then submit it to the UGC with minutes or comments of the members every year. The report will include both quantitative as well as qualitative information and the achievements and actions which were taken.

The centers will be the evaluated on the basis of teaching, research, seminars, extension activities, workshops, special lectures, field action projects and action research, documentation and archive on women, a partnership with other UGC centers and non-UGC centers, government schemes and NGOs.

However, these guidelines hold some negative as well. According to the previous guidelines, teaching and training in women’s studies centers, including BA, MA, MPhil and PhD qualifications were addressed in detail. But, in the new guidelines there is almost nothing mentioned about the teaching and training (or about the four degrees) in the 23 paged slim document.

Previously, many women’s studies centers were dependent on the UGC for funding or universities and colleges used to pay themselves for sustaining these centers. But now, if this funding is pulled back by the UGC, it could probably lead to the end for many of these centers, their faculty, and students.

Earlier, the funding was allocated between Rs 47.5 lakh to Rs 75 lakh per annum to centers, depending on how advanced they were. But according to the new guidelines the funding may be allocated between Rs 12.5 lakh to Rs 40 lakh depending on the type of center.

Consequences of Fund Cutting

Consequences of Fund Cutting

  • All this might lead to the non-payment of the staff already working in several universities and colleges. A threat of losing jobs will be there.
  • The competing ability of scholars who are currently pursuing women’s studies will decline. As the teaching and research positions were previously funded by the UGC will not be having any penny to pay them.
  • Disruption of teaching and research functions across the centers in universities might be caused. This will affect students doing research, Ph.D.’s and other such courses as they will be left alone without any guide.

These centers undoubtedly a great step for women education but with new changed guidelines we need to see how it will be affecting existing structure? Also how much opposition will be there in from various Institutes for the same?

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Reality Check For Teaching – Accept Your Students What they Are..

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UNBIASED TEACHING

“Our job is to teach and guide the students we have. Not the ones we would like to have. Not those which we used to have. Those we have right now. All of them.” – Dr. Kevin Maxwell

You might have heard this from your fellows who are into teaching profession or have said this – “ Today’s college students are absolutely different from what they use to be a decade ago.”

A change which is standing out cultivating many aspects positives as well as negative. People today, understand the utter importance of education after high school and graduation.

In order to achieve the positive outcomes, it is very necessary to have broader participation of not only the teachers but the students as well. One of the important aspects which are very difficult to achieve is to convert the available knowledge, skills, time, energy, and money into quality learning and education. Teaching according to the old patterns and norms is not going to prove helpful in today’s time as there is a lot of competition everywhere.

According to Dr. Kevin Maxwell,   “Our job is to teach and guide the students we have. Not the ones we would wish to have. Not those we used to have. Those we have right now. All of them.”

We can never choose specific students that we want to teach or the ones which we don’t want to teach. It is certainly not in our hands. An ideal teacher should take all the students together even if they are so different from each other, or even if they do not fit into the teaching patterns. Not all students are born intelligent or possess only good qualities. The present students should be focused on and not compared to the students in the past or the ones which the particular teacher would like to have.

Challenges to Face in the Path

There are lots of challenges and problems in colleges today, well, the sad part is that they are generally ignored and not taken care of. According to one of the essays by Nancy Bunge, it is not only the teachers who get hurt if the students evaluate them but the students as well. Passive and somewhat arrogant students are produced if the undeserved aloofness is encouraged by the heavy reliance on student evaluations. This eventually leads to lowering the quality of the spirit of the class and in the teachings as well for everyone.

According to the teachers and professors, they say that students these days are harder to teach. If the new teaching patterns are no adapted there will be a non-filling gap amongst the teachers and the students. This will affect the performance of the students overall as they might be less interactive in the classroom and also distracted.  At times, it is also observed that there is favoritism in the class amongst the students by the teachers, and yes they do prefer some students over others. It not only hurts the students mentally but also demotivates them for performing better.

Learning and teaching is a two-way path, and yes efforts are needed to be put from both sides. Teachers should be humble even if the students are not getting good grades and on the other hand, students should engage with the teachers more. This will improve mutual understanding and the process of teaching will be much easier and interactive.

READ MORE – Eduvoice’s Exclusive Interview with Former AICTE Director Dr. Manpreet Singh Manna over SWAYAM

The college students of today’s times are generally considered to be the rebel type. In India, one of the major issues in the education system is that worthy students do not get the opportunity according to their abilities and caliber. Many of the students are either disinterested in studying after graduation or they don’t have the needed funds. Even though, a great population of today’s youth believe in higher education, and are growing with their careers; many of them are also moving out of the country in search of latest and upgraded education, which somewhere lacks in India.

Changes Necessary to Be Made

With the changing times, it is a natural tendency for students to grow fast, many students in any college hold more knowledge than the teachers, and; this aspect is constantly being neglected by our education system including the teachers. The age-old patterns and curriculum are being followed in many of the colleges and universities in India, which is certainly harmful to the students as they ultimately, have to face this fast and competing world. New teaching plans and patterns should be crafted for the betterment of both the teachers and the students.

Quality education is a key requirement of a prospering country, like India as it aims to build sustained growth. But, the current situation of the Indian education system is extremely poor. Even though efforts are being made nationwide to improve the present situation, it is accurate to say that different complications ail different Indian states and the teaching patterns they follow. Some states have an extremely high student-teacher ratio, while others suffer from a poor gross enrollment ratio. All of this entirely depends on the perceptive the teachers hold for their students.

In higher education institutions; the procedure followed to assess student’s needs to change steadily. In many institutes, student assessment is carried out as a single standardized exam at the end of the academic year till today. The basis of this assessment is this one test that the subject knowledge and clarity of concepts in students are judged, and they take forward that mark sheet and certificate to penetrate the job industry. If the features of the current generation-the Millennials are taken into consideration, this assessment procedure is quite ineffective in understanding the true potential, caliber, knowledge retention and its applicability amongst today’s students.

In today’s world, more ways to listen for the voices of students demonstrating on education are needed. More ways to include students in conversations related to the future of teaching and learning patterns in colleges and universities are needed. Certainly, these conversations cannot begin by sending a signal to students that their voices don’t matter.

Conclusively, we as educators have the responsibility to serve our educational system in a way that everyone has a chance to gain, grow, and learn. This has to begin with a sense of respect for the students. Students should be accepted the way they are and not the way we wish or want them to be. Students are human first. And so are their teachers. Students are not robots or analytical data or information.

Leading the way of designing the pedagogical approaches for the students we have, not the students we wish we had is all that is needed.

Responsive, inclusive, flexible, challenging, and benevolent approaches are required to achieve this. Discovery of more creative ways to reinforce teachers and brace them for the work of teaching is required to be done by the educational institutions. It’s a practical exercise, not a theoretical one.

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The Impact Of Globalization In India

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The Impact Of Globalization In India

Today Technology has, in fact, widen and reduce access to education. It has changed the way people use to perceive business and education in particular. We are living in a period where the business world is rapidly changing. The knowledge-driven and information centered economy is pushing business to innovate and come up with new business plans and capabilities.

Impact of globalization in India is one of the most dominant forces facing by higher education in the 21st century. It has a close symmetry with education. As education has an important role in shaping society, globalization has to be coerced with education and global activities have a deep impact on it.

Globalization is a process of integration. interaction, and exchange between people, ideas, innovations, resources, and opportunities across regional and national borders. The impact of globalization in India has been massive and it has forced Indian universities to come up with a new model to provide better educational opportunities for aspiring students. Higher education in India needs to adapt and follow the path of technological disruptions and globalization to enable students for today’s workplace.

Education in the era of globalization should be made flexible. It cannot be the same for everyone; each individual student has different needs. All students should be encouraged to engage in learning with new ideas and innovation valued in today’s corporate workplace. The pace of education should be set at a student’s pace to master the required skills.

Many institutions have responded to the change and plan to internationalize their campuses and academic courses.

Challenges

Challenges in the Era of Globalization

  • Lack of Understanding: Many institutions who are going to institutionalize their campuses do not have a real understanding of it.
  • Student mobility: the real focus of the institutions should be on student mobility when they about opening an institution outside their regional borders.
  • Managing strategic goals, relevant curriculum, new policies, and international collaboration together in a better manner to meet the positive results.
  • Bringing the best minds as the incubators of intellectual capital will solve many challenges. Due to the impact of globalization in India, the nation needs to develop international research collaboration among scholars.
  • Attracting foreign students will bring revenues with them. the increase in enrolment of international students with diversity in nature will encourage intellectualism as well as overwhelming contributions.
  • It has been accepted by the Government of India and other regulatory apex bodies that there is a need to increase the Gross Enrolment ratio (GER) in Higher Education in India. There is a need to increase the number of Universities, Colleges, and institutions. – lack of fund is one of the challenges.
  • In the age of impact of globalization in India, education coupled with skill development is a must to export Indian human resource to different parts of the globe. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education is one of the strong pillars on which the said proposition rests.

Rea

Impact of Globalization

Let’s see Impact of Globalization in India

  • Customized educative programs- Impact of globalization in India has ushered a lot of changes in the nature of policies, curriculum, values, pedagogies, leadership, assessment, and, organizational structures etc. School and colleges are going for customized educative programs to provide for full rounded education initiatives. Gaining new skills, implementation and innovation are few impacts of globalization worldwide.
  • Impact of Technology-Technological Infrastructure is the backbone of the 21st-century education system The effective use of technological innovations can diminish boundaries. People from any corner of the world can gain access to information; data and an array of online courses. Easy admission process, online courses, and setting up foreign universities in India are all seen as impacts of globalization on Indian education.
  • Impact on Teachers’- The role of faculty members in higher education is now ever-changing. In the impact of globalization in India, faculty members require some specialized skills and strategies. The instructors need to be highly organized and communicate with learners in new ways.
  • They need to be accessible to students and work in teams whenever needed. The instructors must be expert in managing communication because there is a demand for student interaction in this age of technological innovation. They should have a strong mastery over ICT.


Pros and Cons

Globalization on Education: Pros and Cons

Pros :

  • The introduction of computer-mediated learning has revolutionized the teaching and learning process. The explosion of knowledge helps people to educate and develop their skills and abilities.
  • Students have options to maintain pace while learning activities and can learn independently of time and space.
  • Use of networks to communicate with their peers, their teachers, information sources, and external experts.
  • It has paved the path for lifelong learning skills for continuous and self-directed learning.
  • Computer-mediated technologies have made it possible to interact more effectively across cultural boundaries. Sharing information and collaborating with others has proven to be a revolution in education.
  • Students are using social media to collaborate with one another and to learn about specific topics., to try out new ideas and innovations.
  • Another advantage is blended learning, where teachers are using a concoction of computers with traditional teaching. Instructors usually use an interactive whiteboard and specially adjust software.

READ MORE – Higher Education 4.0: Smart Pathways For Smart Future (Part 1)

Cons:

  • The greater application of English in the underdeveloped and developing countries has paved the path for lucrative business for the publishing houses.
  • Over-dependence on English as a dominant language of the world has marginalized many local languages.
  • Nowadays, young millennials are distracted by digital technologies. The young minds are dominated by mass media and digital culture and are bombarded by the numerous source of information. it becomes difficult for them to select the right piece of information that will shape them for the future.
  • With the arrival of an array of online courses, many learners are not interested in pursuing higher education.
  • Young learners prefer learning based on new technologies. For this reason, conventional classroom-based education in the form as it is now, might not survive.
  • Another important disadvantage is the lack of interaction among young learners. The advent of online learning has posed a threat towards an opportunity to listen to questions and discussions in the classroom.
New Era of Globalisation

New Era of Globalisation

The impact of globalization in India has triggered many important changes and tells us about the faster developments in technology and communications. We are witnessing the changes in the ideas, values. knowledge and the role of teachers and students courtesy the impact of globalization in India.

Technology has completely changed the form of electronic literacy. Today, more and more courses are available online and educators are also preparing materials in electronic form and asking students to submit the assignment and projects in electronic form.

The new-age classroom includes video projection screens, CD ROMs and podiums are replacing blackboards. Even students are examined through computer managed learning systems.

Such developments in education reflect there has been an impact of globalization in India. The emergence of video conferencing and the Internet has broken the barriers of distance. Young millennials can now learn without being physically present in an education institution, due to the key aspect of globalization.  

The amalgamation of technology and communication can be accessed by any learner from anywhere, at any time. In the impact of globalization in India, both the learners and the educators need to be technologically literate.

Educators must encourage students about the new offerings that communication technology is accomplishing. Institutions are now shifting towards the use of the Internet and computer-mediated technologies to deliver courses to students.

In a Nutshell

Several universities across India have responded positively to the significant impact of educative innovativeness. With the impact of globalization in India hitting the shores of education, improving the infrastructure to cater to the world class standard of education should become a top priority.

To increase the enrolment ratio of foreign students, the institutions must invest to improve the quality of classrooms, libraries, laboratories, and sports facilities.

The recent days in India, improving the quality and quantity of educational delivery in the socio-economic dimensions of the country are major challenges and opportunities, especially in the field of higher education.

Unless such models are implemented one cannot bring about a revolutionary change in the overall quality of education in the age of globalization.

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Top 20 Famous Contributors to the Special Education Field

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Top 20 Famous Contributors

Throughout the history of special education, over 4.5 million children were denied adequate schooling. But, over the years, many people often disabled themselves focused on education for people with disabilities. Some of these individuals broke barriers by fighting for their own educational experiences. The following list of 20 famous contributors to the special education field contains just a handful of all the individuals who have contributed to this effort. The following list is in chronological order, from the 16th century to current news.

Pedro Ponce de León

Pedro Ponce de León (d. 1584)

He was a Spanish Benedictine monk believed to be the first person to develop a method for teaching deaf/mutes during the 16th century. Details of his methods either were never recorded or have been lost. Many laymen believed at that time that the deaf were too simple-minded to be eligible for salvation under Christian doctrine.

Abbot Charles-Michel de l’Epée

Abbot Charles-Michel de l’Epée (d. 1789)

He was a philanthropic educator of 18th-century France who has become known as the “Father of the Deaf.” What distinguished Épée from educators of the deaf before him, and ensured his place in history, is that he allowed his methods and classrooms to be available to the public and other educators.

Abbot Roche-Amboise Sicard

Abbot Roche-Amboise Sicard (d. 1822)

He took l’Epée’s sign language and further perfected it. He was made principal of a school for the deaf at Bordeaux in 1786, and in 1789, on the death of the Abbé de l’Épée, succeeded him at Paris. He met Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet while traveling in England and invited Gallaudet to visit the famous school for the deaf in Paris.

Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet

Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (d. 1851)

He helped fund and was for many years the principal of the first institution for the education of the deaf in North America. When opened in 1817, it was called the “American Asylum for Deaf-Mutes” in Connecticut, but it is now known as the American School for the Deaf.

Louis Braille

Louis Braille (d. 1852)

He became blind after he accidentally stabbed himself in the eye with his father’s awl. He later became an inventor and designed braille writing, which enables blind people to read through feeling a series of organized bumps representing letters. This concept was beneficial to all blind people from around the world and is commonly used even today.

Edward Miner Gallaudet

Edward Miner Gallaudet (d. 1917)

Thomas’ son, was the president of Columbia University for the deaf from 1864–1910. He sought college status for that university and received it with President Abraham Lincoln’s help. The school then became known as the first college for the dear, or Gallaudet University. He was a staunch advocate of sign language.

Dr. Jacob Bolotin

Dr. Jacob Bolotin (d. 1924)

He was the first congenitally blind man to receive a medical license. Dr. Bolotin lived and practiced in Chicago during the early part of the twentieth century and was particularly known for his expertise on diseases of the heart and lungs. He used his many public speaking engagements to advocate for the full inclusion of the blind in education, employment, and all other aspects of society.

Eglantyne Jebb

Eglantyne Jebb (d. 1928)

He was a British social reformer who wrote the first draft of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, a series of related children’s rights proclamations adopted by the International Save the Children Union, Geneva, in 1923 and endorsed by the League of Nations General Assembly in 1924.

Clifford W. Beers

Clifford W. Beers (d. 1943)

He was a young businessman who had a mental breakdown and recovered to write about it in A Mind That Found Itself in 1908. He created the National Committee on Mental Hygiene to move Americans away from state hospital custodial and to emphasize prevention.

Herbert Hoover

Herbert Hoover (d. 1964)

Endorsed Jebb’s work and created the Charter of the American Child. “For every child who is blind, deaf, crippled, or otherwise physically handicapped, and for the child who is mentally handicapped, such measures as will early discover and diagnose his handicap, provide care and treatment, and so train him that he may become an asset to society rather than a liability.”

Helen Keller

Helen Keller (d. 1968)

She was an American author, activist, and lecturer. She was the first deaf/blind person to graduate from college. She was not born blind and deaf; it was not until nineteen months of age that she came down with an illness described by doctors as “acute congestion of the stomach and the brain”, which could have possibly been scarlet fever or meningitis.

Dr. Gunnar Dybwad

Dr. Gunnar Dybwad (d. 2001)

He persuaded the leaders of the Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children to sue on behalf of disabled children in 1969. The case, PARC versus Pennsylvania, is credited with establishing the rights of children with disabilities to get a free and equal public education.

READ MORE – 10 Women Who Educate The Nation To Change The World

Rosemary Kennedy

Rosemary Kennedy (d. 2005)

She was the third child and eldest daughter of Joseph and Rose Kennedy. A lobotomy performed on Rosemary in 1940 left her permanently disabled. She inspired her sister, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, to begin a summer day camp that grew into the Special Olympics, and inspired her brother, President John F. Kennedy, to initiate sweeping legislation designed to improve the quality of life for Americans with disabilities.

Anne McDonald

Anne McDonald 

She is an Australian author and an activist for the rights of people who have communication disabilities. She developed severe cerebral palsy from a birth defect and was institutionalized throughout her teens. At age 18, she repeatedly fought the system in Australia to achieve, through facilitated communication, her own deinstitutionalization, independence, and enrollment in a university.

Rosemary Crossley

Rosemary Crossley 

She is another Australian author and advocate for disability rights. She wrote, with Anne McDonald, the book, Annie’s Coming Out, the story of Anne’s breakthrough to communication. She later wrote a second book, Speechless: Facilitating Communication for People Without Voices.

Madeleine Will

Madeleine Will

in 1986, proposed what has been called the Regular Education Initiative. Citing concerns about some unintended negative effects of special education “pull-out” programs, her proposal suggested that greater efforts to educate mildly and moderately disabled students in the mainstream of regular education should be pursued. In 2004, Ms. Will was named Director of the National Policy Center of the National Down Syndrome Society.

John Elder Robison

John Elder Robison

brother to Augusten Burroughs (author of Running with Scissors) wrote his own memoir on what it was like to grow up with Asperger’s Syndrome. The book, Look Me in the Eye, published in 2007, was a groundbreaking look into how one person coped with an unknown disease until he learned about Asperger’s at age 39. Robison now serves as a volunteer spokesman for the Graduate Autism Program at Our Lady of the Elms College in Chicopee, Massachusetts.

Dr. Stephen Shore

Dr. Stephen Shore 

it was nonverbal until four and diagnosed with “atypical development with strong autistic tendencies,” Stephen Shore was regarded as “too sick” to be treated on an outpatient basis and recommended for institutionalization. Fortunately, his parents disagreed. He is now completing his doctoral degree in special education at Boston University with a focus on helping people on the autism spectrum develop their capacities to the fullest extent possible.

Temple Grandin

Temple Grandin 

He is a Doctor of Animal Science and professor at Colorado State University, bestselling author, and consultant to the livestock industry in animal behavior. As a person with high-functioning autism, Grandin is also widely noted for her work in autism advocacy and is the inventor of the “hug machine” designed to calm hypersensitive persons.

Susan Lee Barker

Susan Lee Barker

a special education teacher, brought a lawsuit against the school district that she worked for. She took the brave position that if anti-discrimination laws protect kids with disabilities, and prohibit retaliation against kids for taking action to protect their own rights, then those laws must also protect the people who stand up for those kids. In 2009, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals agreed in the now-famous case, Barker v. Riverside County Office of Education.

Source – www.mastersinspecialeducation.net

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