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Higher Education Systems of India and Malaysia – Similarities and Disparities



Higher Education Systems of India and Malaysia

Sandeep Kautish

Sandeep Kautish

Professor & Dean – Academic Affairs

LBEF Campus. Kathmandu

Read on our article by Dr. Sandeep Kautish, Dean of Academics at Lord Buddha Education Foundation (LBEF Campus) reflecting his insights on the Higher Education Systems of India and Malaysia  and the Similarities and Disparities both these systems share with each other

India and Malaysia are emerging study abroad destinations for students from many Asian and African countries. UNESCO has categorized Malaysia as the 12th most preferred education destination in the world while India earned the name of “Vishwa Guru” when Takshashila and Nalanda kind of Indian universities used to attract pupils from all over the world.

In the modern era, affordable fee structures, a variety of courses and a low cost of living are major factors which attract students from different countries. Both the countries have shown steady growth in the economy and infrastructural development in the past two decades which had made these countries very popular study abroad destinations. Five universities of Malaysia have appeared in prestigious QS ranking of 2017 while 12 institutions from India showed their names in the list.

Despite many similarities, the education systems of both India and Malaysia are quite different in many forms. Having experience in both the education systems i.e. India (initially as a student and then as a professor) and Malaysia (as a professor working with a top Malaysian University), I am writing this article for making a comparative assessment of both.

Higher Education Systems of India and Malaysia

Educational Board – India & Malaysia

The first and foremost difference I find in India and Malaysia Education Systems is the inclusion of foreign universities culture. Several American and British Universities have already come up with their campuses in Malaysia for not only Malaysian but also international students while at the other hand, the Indian education system is still dominated by the major government giants like IITs, NITs, Central/State Universities and after that many prominent private institutions i.e. BITS, Jaypee etc. According to All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE), India has more than 10,000 engineering institutions in 2016 which offer a wide variety of study options to students. In fact, these institutions are not only catering Indian students but also thousands of students from Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and many African countries also opt Indian universities and colleges for higher education degrees.

The second difference is the opportunity of intake. In Malaysia, students get the opportunity of three or intakes in a year. Moreover few institutions of Malaysia takes admission for four times in a year which is double than India where maximum two intakes are allowed in a year. Here Malaysian institutions have a competitive advantage.

Another difference in the higher education systems of Malaysia and India which I could personally seem is the difference between assessment methodologies. In India, AICTE and other regulatory bodies are still struggling with finding the deciding line in many areas like plagiarism, documentation methods and assessments of student evaluation. Moreover, there are variations and discrepancies in policies related to higher education in India. At the other side, Malaysia has adopted the Malaysian Qualification Framework (MQF) which is a unified system of post-secondary education implementation and regulations. It clarifies all qualifications and academic achievements in higher education and these qualifications are directly linked with attainment goals of educational delivery. The Malaysian Universities mandates their students to write at least 4-5 individual assignments at even undergraduate level and these assignments are perfectly mapped with MQF guidelines which boost the creative writing skills among students which helps them to understand real-time scenarios.

Higher Education Systems of India and Malaysia

MQF- Malaysia Qualification Framework

We can compare Malaysia Qualification Framework (MQF) with accreditations bodies of India like National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) and the National Board of Accreditation (NBA). As far as the conception is concerned, MQF is quite similar to NAAC and NBA accreditation. Having been worked at India for more than 13 years under the institutions running under AICTE and accredited by NAAC and NBA, I have to say the deliverables of NAAC and NBA could not reach the level where they were intended to. The major barriers of the implementation are the scattered policy frameworks with no clear guidelines and negligence of government agencies in regulating the implementation of same. Another difference is the flavour of the education systems. In spite of having world-class education setups, India lags behind Malaysia when it comes to attracting foreign students from the Middle East and Africa.

Being the most liberal Muslim country of the world, Malaysia is able to attract more students from the Asian subcontinent while India is not very popular among non-Asian students due to its cultural diversities and other political reasons.


Three Things to Make a Great Teacher




Professor (Dr.) Trilok Kumar Jain

(an SGVU  initiative to promote Innovations and Entrepreneurship)
Principal, SGVU Academic Staff College (GV-ASC)
Professor and Dean, International School of Business Management (ISBM) 
Suresh Gyan Vihar University Jaipur, India


Teaching is the best profession in the world because a teacher transforms an ordinary person into an outstanding citizen. The role of the teacher is very difficult to understand and also very challenging. Only someone who loves this profession would be able to do justice with the rising expectations. Being a teacher, I wish to share three fundamental principles, which can help in our transformation.


Don’t Teach – Let them Learn

The overemphasis on teaching kills the opportunities of the transformation of students. Students wish to learn and grow and a teacher is a mere facilitator. It is the fundamental role of the teacher to kindle a desire to learn, understand the hurdles faced by the students and create pathways for learning. This learning may be the result of mutual learning. The teacher may not be teaching, but creating an environment for learning. The mere presence of teacher may kindle a desire to learn and students may support each other in the process of learning.


Convert Classroom into Learning Centers

A teacher converts a classroom into a learning center. Mere a building doesn’t convert it into a learning center. The bricks and mortar present do not create an opportunity to learn. Students may end up feeling frustrated in a suffocating chamber. However, a teacher can break this situation and convert this room into a learning center, where students are willing to learn something. Their willingness and their efforts to learn to create the required ambiance, which is further developed into an open forum for curiosity, inquisition, inquiry, discussions and information sharing.


Keeping the Slow Learners in Perspective

A teacher has to address a variety of students. A classroom may contain 60 learners, but everyone is not learning at the same pace. Some of these are fast learners and they are able to grab the attention of the teacher also. They are able to increase the speed of discussions in the classroom and create a stimulus for fast-paced learning. The teacher has to understand that there are also some slow learners. The art of teaching is to blend teaching at such a pace that there are opportunities for learning for both fast learners and slow learners. It is easy to teach to the fast learners. However, a great teacher is someone who is able to reduce the pace to the level of slow learners and enable them to come up to other students also.


The art of teaching of the teacher should create an opportunity for learning for everyone present in the classroom. When the entire class is involved in the learning process, there is a true environment for learning. A new teacher generally tries to be very fast in teaching due to over-enthusiasm.

However, with the passage of time, the teacher realizes that true joy of teaching comes when the student at the bottom of the class emerges as the winner at the end. The transformation of an ordinary student into an extraordinary learner is the best reward for the teacher.


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Guest Author

Gap Between our Education System and Industry



Prof.(Dr.) Anish Gupta

Asstt. Dean Academics

Editor | Amity Journal of Computational Sciences

Read on our article on the emerging gap between our education system and industry by Prof.(Dr.) Anish Gupta, Asstt. Dean Academics at Amity University

If we look in today’s scenario, we will find there is a tremendous downfall in our existing education system. Generally, we used to hear that many of the colleges were shut down due to lack of admission. Many of the leading industrialist quote that we are producing professional such that 84% of them are not eligible for jobs. Now, the major question which arises is WHY? If we try to understand the major issue for the same, there are various factors which have caused this problem. Still, we are not trying to accept and rectify these issues.

The major issue is our approach. Parents want their child to study, they want that they should score good marks, they should get a good job and earn lots of money. They should be trained from there childhood to become a doctor, engineer etc. as per there family background and suggestions received from others irrespective of the capabilities of their children. But now the question arises what child want? Do he/she want to become the same as his/her parents want? Or he/she want to do something different as per his/her creativity. If we study without interest in any subject or field our productivity will be less and will lead us to inefficient working.

Secondly, our course structure. We used to say and accept that the technology is changing very fast. End-user requirements are changing tremendously. Did our course structure is changing at the same speed? The answer is NO. We have governing bodies known as AICTE, UGC etc., who have made the rule that in the Academic Committee of the Institute there should be members from Industry. The question arises how many do have? How many go for regular meetings? Whether the suggestion received from Industry experts is accepted? And up to what percentage it is being implemented? The answer will be merely 1%. Here we lack in our Education system. We fail to meet industry requirements.

Education System and Industry

Our education system is now required to be specialized rather than domain specific. We should not teach computer engineering. We should teach Artificial Intelligence, Digital Image processing etc. Instead of creating a dentist, we should specialize them into a specific field. If surgery required, then RCT expert should do it instead of a dental surgeon. Such specialization will meet the industry requirement and will lead to fruitful output.

Every College/University should be bound to have an Industrial expert in their Academic body. The quarterly meeting should be conducted, and the suggestion should be implemented in the Academic system. This will lead to the better education system with industry-ready brains.




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Guest Author

“OOC”Out of College Youth , Human Capital and Higher Education



Power To  Empower Youth Through Quality Higher Education

Sudhir Gavhane

Dr. Sudhir Gavhane

Director, National Outreach & Network

Former Dean, Liberal Arts, Science & Commerce

MIT-World: Peace University, Pune, India

Read on our article by Professor Dr Sudhir Gavhane explaining ” OOC ” YOUTH , HUMAN CAPITAL AND HIGHER EDUCATION  and imparting Power To  Empower Youth Through Quality Higher Education


” The power of youth is the common wealth for the entire world. The faces of young people are the faces of our past, our present and our future. No segment in the society can match with the power , idealism, enthusiasm and courage of the young people.”

Kailash Satyarthi

Nobel laureate ( Peace) India & Founder,Bachpan Bachav Andolan 


Human Capital is more powerful than the capital itself, but most of the corporates and Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) fail to understand this power of Human Capital. They invest hugely on buildings, posh infrastructure, magnificent offices, highly impressive and aesthetically marvelous premises but they don’t invest or reluctant to invest on getting highly talented and experienced human capital by paying them handsome packages and mostly don’t have the policy to retain them. Employees are low paid, not seen experiencing freedom, support and mostly their capabilities are under-utilized. Ultimately it’s a loss to the organization, if they follow such dangerous path of Human Capital Management(HCM). Actually, there is a need to have Human Capital Management department or unit, which top corporate houses have in place. In the higher education sector, it is noticed that the top management is seen not worried at all, though their sincere, hardworking & trusted human capital- staff continuously leave their jobs. They miserably fail to retain them, hence their attrition ratio is too high. It’s not seen that private sector higher education organisations fail to follow concrete retention attempts.



Quality Human Capital is an oxygen for any organisation including higher education and they do not fall from space or from so-called heaven. After all who creates capital? Wealth? It’s an output of competencies of powerful and creative human beings. They only with their training, education, character, passion, and pains generate capital and wealth. Like any monetary capital, if human capital is not utilised properly and optimally, we can’t expect and achieve the desired progress and prosperity. Thus to empower any nation, first, we have to empower its youth by Education, Knowledge, Skills ( EKS) to engage themselves in building their own life and ultimately nation building. Youth population by its talent and energies shapes and reshapes the future of any country. It’s more true about India as our nation is full of the youth population, meaning it’s a storehouse of abundant youth power. What’s needed is to have a roadmap and runway to march towards progress and prosperity by utilising this youth power wisely and creatively. Human capital is the strength of any nation, if their talent and abilities are explored and expanded by giving them appropriate opportunities and professional and life skill training. Higher Education gives you opportunities to discover Yourself, uncover your hidden potential and talent and expand your horizons about your career.


My mantra about youth is very simple.

Youth + Quality Higher Education + Skills + Human Values = Empowerment.


It’s process of discovery of human potentials and applying them for construction of the future of youth and nation.

If you don’t consider this as the priority before the nation, then this youth force may get itself indulge into destruction, instead of construction and rebuilding of a nation. Any lawfully established democratic Government shouldn’t aim at and strive for Jobless Growth but for “Job Full Growth “.



India: Storehouse of Global youth


At present in India, we have 423 million youth population in the age group of 17 to 24 years. The share of the youth population in total population in India is as much as 34.8%(2011). As per the United Nations Population Division India has the highest number of 10 to 24-year young population, which is 242 million, that of China is 185 million. India is expected to have a 34.33% share of youth population by 2020. Therefore, we can say that this youth population of India is and can be its strength and at the same time it can be a serious threat too.

It depends on our decision, whether we want to take advantage of  “Demographic Dividend ” or “Demographic Danger”.


Out Of College ( OOC )Youth: 125 million


In Country like India, the Gross Enrolment Ratio ( GER) in higher education is near about 25 %.

GER is calculated on the basis of how many percentages of the youth of 18 to 23 age group have entered college for higher education? What does this mean? In the first quarter of the 21st century, In the continental size country like India with 1.2 billion population and going to remain global hub youth population, more than 82% youth of 18 to 23 age group is still Out Of College( OOC). As per the population statistics the youth population of 18 to 23 age group is around 160 million in India and out of them only 35 million youth could reach & enter in college / higher education. Even now in the year 2018, in the vast country like India, what I call “Out Of College” youth ( OOC -Youth ) population is 125 million. This “OOC Youth ” number is huge his I call it an untapped and neglected Human Capital of India.


Why I say this because in terms of GER ( Gross Enrolment Ratio) in higher education of the prominent countries in the world such as USA, Sweden, Norway, Finland have their GER around 80% and more. The developed nations’ average GER in higher education is 55% to 60 % and the world average is 38%. It means in the eligible age group of 18 to 23 only this much percentage of youth can get an opportunity for higher education. Others drop out due to socio-economic and cultural reasons and the GER stands for this. Then there is a concept of “Graduation Ratio” meaning out of youth, who have taken admission or entered into colleges and universities, how many percentages of them complete their graduation successfully? That ratio is called as Graduation Ratio. It’s but natural that Graduation ratio in India is going to be lower than GER.



The naked truth of Indian higher education is that,


1) Majority youth is Out Of College ( OOC Youth: 82% – 125 million).Their human capital is not appropriately utilised for their own progress and societal and national development. It’s a huge loss to the nation. It becomes the reason for ever-increasing criminality as we are not providing them legitimate jobs and livelihood.


2) With the <=25% GER in higher education at present ( which was less than 10 % decade ago), India has given birth to more than 400 million middle class, which is having purchasing power and hence India has become one of the best markets of the globe. Just imagine, if we educate our youth and create the infrastructure required to achieve GER of 50% to 60%  by way of establishing more public and colleges and universities to increase Gross Enrolment Ratio. Higher education is becoming not only costly but also unaffordable to lower class, middle-class families. Hence we need to create quality public universities and even private universities with charitable motives, then only quality higher education can be made available for weaker and middle-class section of our country. This is the investment for creating happy future for the nation and youth.


India needs aggressive steps for the expansion of the public higher education system. It is every possibility, that India can achieve high-level GER and massive higher education expansion with quality infrastructure and teachers. The regulatory agencies need to monitor and ascertain whether any college or university has developed required infrastructure and quality and qualified teachers before giving them permission. Then and then only we can do the massive expansion with inbuilt quality.


Let’s understand this and plan for the future of our beloved nation India and its youth.


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